Recurrent Neural Network Language Model with Incremental Updated Context Information Generated Using Bag-of-Words Representation

Md. Akmal Haidar, Mikko Kurimo


Recurrent neural network language model (RNNLM) is becoming popular in the state-of-the-art speech recognition systems. However, it can not remember long term patterns well due to a so-called vanishing gradient problem. Recently, Bag-of-words (BOW) representation of a word sequence is frequently used as a context feature to improve the performance of a standard feed-forward NNLM. However, the BOW features have not been shown to benefit RNNLM. In this paper, we introduce a technique using BOW features to remember long term dependencies in RNNLM by creating a context feature vector in a separate non-linear context layer during the training of RNNLM. The context information is incrementally updated based on the BOW features and processed further in a non-linear context layer. The output of this layer is used as a context feature vector and fed into the hidden and output layers of the RNNLM. Experiments with Penn Treebank corpus indicate that our approach can provide lower perplexity with fewer parameters and faster training compared to the conventional RNNLM. Moreover, we carried out speech recognition experiments with Wall Street Journal corpus and achieved lower word error rate than RNNLM.


DOI: 10.21437/Interspeech.2016-375

Cite as

Haidar, M.A., Kurimo, M. (2016) Recurrent Neural Network Language Model with Incremental Updated Context Information Generated Using Bag-of-Words Representation. Proc. Interspeech 2016, 3504-3508.

Bibtex
@inproceedings{Haidar+2016,
author={Md. Akmal Haidar and Mikko Kurimo},
title={Recurrent Neural Network Language Model with Incremental Updated Context Information Generated Using Bag-of-Words Representation},
year=2016,
booktitle={Interspeech 2016},
doi={10.21437/Interspeech.2016-375},
url={http://dx.doi.org/10.21437/Interspeech.2016-375},
pages={3504--3508}
}