Interspeech'2005 - Eurospeech
The two distinct sound sources comprising voiced frication, voicing and frication, interact. One effect is that the periodic source at the glottis modulates the amplitude of the frication source originating in the vocal tract above the constriction. Voicing strength and modulation depth for frication noise were measured for sustained English voiced fricatives using high-pass filtering, spectral analysis in the modulation (envelope) domain, and a variable pitch compensation procedure. Results show a positive relationship between strength of the glottal source and modulation depth at voicing strengths below 66 dB SPL, at which point the modulation index was approximately 0.5 and saturation occurred. The alveolar [z] was found to be more modulated than other fricatives.
Bibliographic reference. Pincas, Jonathan / Jackson, Philip J. B. (2005): "Amplitude modulation of frication noise by voicing saturates", In INTERSPEECH-2005, 349-352.