Beginning in 2001, we have been developing models of the vocal tract to promote a more intuitive understanding of the theories for speech science for technical and non-technical students. In this paper, we compared and contrasted four newer models of the talking heads: our original model with a gel-type tongue, a similar model including teeth and palate, a third model with teeth and palate having a default low tongue height, and a fourth ultra-malleable model made completely of gel material. Results are discussed regarding their strengths and weaknesses for educational purposes and articulatory training in speech pathology and language learning.
Bibliographic reference. Arai, Takayuki (2008): "Physical models of the human vocal tract with gel-type material", In INTERSPEECH-2008, 2651-2654.