Listeners were asked to judge talkers' sex from audio samples. Pictures of men, women, or a neutral visual stimulus were presented concurrent with, 150 ms before, or 150 ms after the spoken stimulus. Listeners' identification of sex for men's voices was most strongly affected by the visual stimulus when it was presented 150 ms after the stimulus. Voice-picture mismatches affected recognition of women's voices earlier than recognition of men's. Thus, while indexical information might most typically be activated late in processing, some socioindexical categories like sex can be activated early and remain active throughout processing.
Bibliographic reference. Munson, Benjamin / Solum, Renata (2010): "When is indexical information about speech activated? evidence from a cross-modal priming experiment", In INTERSPEECH-2010, 1521-1524.