Previous studies have recently agreed that second occurrence focus is phonetically realized as prosodic prominence. What has been missing in the previous studies, however, is a comparison with neutral-focus, in addition to main focus and pre/post-focus, which is necessary to elucidate a precise phonetic status of second occurrence focus. Using evidence from Japanese, this study shows that second occurrence focus in the pre/post-focus position is realized with high pitch less salient than main focus but more than pre/post-focus. Compared with neutral-focus, the pitch of second occurrence focus is higher in the pre-focus position but lower in the post-focus position due to post-focus compression. Furthermore, this study provides a cross-linguistic insight of focus realization. The result suggests that Japanese focus experiences pre-focus compression, in addition to post-focus compression, which is different from Korean, English, and Mandarin.
Bibliographic reference. Nambu, Satoshi / Lee, Yong-cheol (2010): "Phonetic realization of second occurrence focus in Japanese", In INTERSPEECH-2010, 1744-1747.