EUROSPEECH 2001 Scandinavia
The timing of both eyebrow and head movements of a talking face was varied systematically in a test sentence using an audiovisual speech synthesizer. The audio speech signal was unchanged over all sentences. 33 listeners were given the task of identifying the most prominent word in the test sentence. Results indicate that both eyebrow and head movements are powerful visual cues for prominence and that perceptual sensitivity to timing is on the order of a typical syllable duration of 100-200 ms.
Bibliographic reference. House, David / Beskow, Jonas / Granström, Björn (2001): "Timing and interaction of visual cues for prominence in audiovisual speech perception", In EUROSPEECH-2001, 387-390.