We present a method that avoids the problem of a large vocabulary recognition system missing keywords due to pruning errors or degraded speech. The method, called white listing, assures that all tokens of all of the keywords are found by the recognizer, albeit with a low score. We show that this method far outperforms methods that attempt to increase recall by using subword models. In addition, we introduce a simple score normalization technique based on mapping the decoding score for a keyword to the probability of false alarm for that keyword. This method has the advantage that it can be estimated for all keywords with reliability, even though there might not be any examples of those keywords in the training or tuning set. This makes the scores of all keywords consistent at all ranges, which allows us to use a single consistent score for all keywords. We show that this method reduces the average miss rate by about a factor of 2 for the same false alarm rate. The method can also be used for combining multiple keyword spotting systems.
Index Terms: keyword search, noise robustness, white list, score normalization
Bibliographic reference. Zhang, Bing / Schwartz, Richard / Tsakalidis, Stavros / Nguyen, Long / Matsoukas, Spyros (2012): "White listing and score normalization for keyword spotting of noisy speech", In INTERSPEECH-2012, 1832-1835.