We present a general approach to reduce the size of feedforward deep neural networks (DNNs). We propose a rank-constrained topology, which factors the weights in the input layer of the DNN in terms of a low-rank representation: unlike previous work, our technique is applied at the level of the filters learned at individual hidden layer nodes, and exploits the natural two-dimensional time-frequency structure in the input. These techniques are applied on a small-footprint DNN-based keyword spotting task, where we find that we can reduce model size by 75% relative to the baseline, without any loss in performance. Furthermore, we find that the proposed approach is more effective at improving model performance compared to other popular dimensionality reduction techniques, when evaluated with a comparable number of parameters.
Bibliographic reference. Nakkiran, Preetum / Alvarez, Raziel / Prabhavalkar, Rohit / Parada, Carolina (2015): "Compressing deep neural networks using a rank-constrained topology", In INTERSPEECH-2015, 1473-1477.