Keyword spotting (KWS) for low-resource languages has drawn increasing attention in recent years. The state-of-the-art KWS systems are based on lattices or Confusion Networks (CN) generated by Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems. It has been shown that considerable KWS gains can be obtained by combining the keyword detection results from different forms of ASR systems, e.g., Tandem and Hybrid systems. This paper investigates an alternative combination scheme for KWS using joint decoding. This scheme treats a Tandem system and a Hybrid system as two separate streams, and makes a linear combination of individual acoustic model log-likelihoods. Joint decoding is more efficient as it requires just a single pass of decoding and a single pass of keyword search. Experiments on six Babel OP2 development languages show that joint decoding is capable of providing consistent gains over each individual system. Moreover, it is possible to efficiently rescore the joint decoding lattices with Tandem or Hybrid acoustic models, and further KWS gains can be obtained by merging the detection posting lists from the joint decoding lattices and rescored lattices.
Bibliographic reference. Wang, Haipeng / Ragni, Anton / Gales, Mark J. F. / Knill, Kate M. / Woodland, Philip C. / Zhang, C. (2015): "Joint decoding of tandem and hybrid systems for improved keyword spotting on low resource languages", In INTERSPEECH-2015, 3660-3664.